Sample Papers

Sample #1: Criminal Law


Boot camp versus traditional incarceration

Boot camps developed as a result of juvenile delinquency rising and evolving over time. Records indicate that juvenile delinquent offenders shot to 35 percent between 1978 and 1989.Thus the juvenile correctional system was under pressure just like the adult one. This then called for the need for a long term institutionalization of the juvenile system. The boot camps, which constitute one version of shock incarceration, were established. However, several questions arise over the adoption of boot camps in the correctional system.

Juveniles should not be allowed to enter boot camps. This is due to many reasons. Firstly, boot camps were originally meant designed for adults joining the military (Bradshaw and Rosenborough, 2005). Therefore, young offenders are not fit not fit enough to withstand the physical regimen in the camps. In fact this harsh image is at odds with the juvenile justice system which has always emphasized ‘rehabilitation’ as opposed to punishment.

Faced with a defiant and out-of- control youth, the idea of sending that youth to a boot camp would seem attractive to the parent at the beginning. However, on top of the hyped stories about the benefits of boot camps, there are many inherent challenges and risks that come with sending ones child to a boot camp (Bradshaw and Rosenborough, 2005). The truth of the matter is that no independent research substantive results on the benefits of boot camps. Proved so far is the fact that such boot camps have not produced significantly low recidivism.

The controversy surrounding boot camps has further been aggravated by reports of abuse by some boot camp prison staff members. This has led to several facilities being closed down completely. Findings show that though most juveniles respond positively while still resident at boot camps, it did not take long for most of them to revert to their usual behavior once they returned to their respective neighborhoods (Siegel and Welsh, 2014).

What is more, some people have become concerned about the rights of the inmates in these camps. These critics argue that the juveniles are not given free choice; instead, they are usually coerced into joining the camps in the first place. In addition, the camp drill instructors do yell at the inmates to obey orders (Vasquez, 2000). Also summary punishments are meted on non-conforming inmates, among other forms of abuse. Some findings indicate that inmates may leave the boot camp as bitter people and not better.

On the other hand, advocates of the boot camps aver that this program is quite beneficial to the juvenile delinquents. They argue that despite what critics say, the inmates end up developing strong beneficial relationships with the boot camp instructors. The supporters also say that drug related offenders benefit greatly from various rehabilitation services offered in the boot camps (Coie and Miller-Johnson, 2001). Ultimately, proponents of boot camp programs feel that the camps stand as the best alternative to the traditional incarcerations where offenders only received nominal supervision.


In conclusion, it can be seen that that though boot camps are a better alternative to traditional incarceration, they still suffer a myriad challenges stemming from structural to curriculum. Further, instead of the correctional system stressing on boot camps, the root causes of the ever rising cases of juvenile delinquency should be identified and remedied. One such way could be educating parents on essentials of good parenting. Also the standardized programs should run across the camps instead of different boot camps choosing which programs to incorporate. In other words, the programs should be holistic. Otherwise, better alternatives to boot camps should be innovated and implemented.



Bradshaw, W., & Rosenborough, D. (2005). Restorative Justice Dialogue: The Impact of Mediation and Conferencing on Juvenile Recidivism. Federal Probation,69 (2), 15-21.

Coie, J.D., & Miller-Johnson, S. (2001). Peer factors and interventions.In Child Delinquents: Development, Intervention, and Service Needs. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.

Siegel, L.J.,& Welsh, B.C. (2014). Juvenile Delinquency: Theory, Practice, and Law. Boston, MA: Cengage Learning

Vasquez, G. (2000). Resiliency: Juvenile offenders recognize their strengths to change their lives.Corrections Today, 62 (3), 106-110.


 Sample #2: Education

How to use the language experience approach with children who are deaf

First, I would emphasize the use of the whole language. I will use language books to enrich a child's mind. I will use words, ideas, images as well as diagrams to create meaning together. This will be done not through a particular pattern; instead, it will follow the learner’s interests and curiosity (Baumann 97). As an adult, my role will be providing knowledge of how written and spoken language work. So, I will start by drawing a picture or a souvenir and then write words or sentences for the child present. The child and I will look at the page together as I read out the words aloud. We will be looking at the words together for some time. This form of talking will include activities such as linking the image or the souvenir with the words (Hittleman 30). These words may include synonyms or even antonyms with words expanding the child’s language knowledge.

The next level would include letting the child choose a drawing or picture or even a souvenir as I ask the child for words or an appropriate story that goes with those things. As the child responds, I will use that very child’s language the way it is or sometimes expand with a view of introducing the child to some new word forms, vocabulary or even new ways of using the words that have been acquired (Ferreiro 102). In this case, I will write words and sentences down as the child watches. Each day, we will both look at the page, with me as the adult reading out the words aloud, linking them with the images provided with a view to further expand the child’s further each time.


The other step would be letting the child create or choose a drawing picture of any other stimuli such as a toy, animal, photograph, visits to interesting places, school events, sports holidays, etc. without being prompted by the adult (Campbell 86). In this case, as an actor, I will act as a scribe by writing the child’s words and sentences in the child’s presence. As every day passes, the adult will read them out aloud. We will link the words together with an aim of adding to the child’s language and understanding.

The other part is where the child chooses a drawing picture or a souvenir and writes down the words with assistance (Meyer 39). I may also do part of the writing. Remember; here there is lots of collaboration. We read the words through turn-taking. We talk about the words and ideas with either of us feeling free to prompt the other to bring out new interpretations or even come out with questions.

As we advance, the child’s role will become more prominent. The child will write words and sentences without much help from me. The child will read the words aloud, and we will converse more with a view to seeking more complexity. This will progress to the one being as an editor and helping the child effect any necessary changes. Finally, the child, later on, will choose and write on their own and keep own journal. I will just serve as a peer editor.

To also make learning experience successful, I will decide on the content. I will make sure there is a balance in the content areas. This is because a page could be talking about a concept, speech part, a key phrase, a story, poem, music, etc. (Tompkins et al. 40). All these need to be balanced to guarantee a wholesome learning experience.


Works Cited

Baumann, Nancy L. For the Love of Reading: Guide to K–8 Reading Promotions: Guide to K–8 Reading Promotions. Santa Babra: ABC-CLIO, 2013. Print

Campbell, Bonnie Hills. Developmental Continuums: A framework for literacy instruction and assessment K-8. Norwood, MA: Christopher-Gordon Publishers, 2001. Print

Ferreiro, Emelia. Literacy Development: Psychogenesis. In Y. Goodman (Ed.). Newark, DE: International Reading Association, 1990. Print

Hittleman, Daniel R. Developmental Reading K-8: Teaching from a Whole Language Perspective. Indiana: Merrill Publishing Company, 1988. Print

Meyer, Connie. What Really Matters in the Early Literacy Development of Deaf Children.Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education 12 (2007): 411-431. Print

Tompkins, Gail,Rod Campbell,David Green andCarol Smith. Literacy for the 21st Century. Sydney: Pearson Australia, 2014. Print


Sample #3: History


Assimilation, ethnic pluralism, and trans-nationalism for immigrants

Assimilation refers to the interpenetration and fusion of persons (immigrants) into the mainstream society. The integration process ensures that immigrants become part of the larger society. On the contrary, pluralism and racial exclusion are patterns by which individuals and groups come to be recognized as part of the larger society. I argue that being recognized in the context of the larger society does not assist in eliminating prejudices and discrimination.

Assimilation is necessary so that prejudices and discrimination against minority groups do not become part of the society. Assimilation ensures that intermarriages take place among different races and ethnic groups. Assimilation is not a one-way process. All ethnic groups are expected to intermarry with each other so that they learn values and beliefs of all groups involved. In the process, there is an appreciation of cultures and understanding of the need to respect cultural and racial differences.

Regarding social-economic assimilation, the society ensures that immigrants as part of the ethnic minority groups achieve average or above-average social standing concerning education, occupation, and income. Structural assimilation also enables minority groups to achieve residential mobility whereby they can live in any region based on their economic status. One similarity noted between assimilation and pluralism entails establishing a common political, economic system that binds various groups.

Pluralism does not assist immigrants to adapt to the society. The society based on racial prejudices can never learn when pluralism is allowed to thrive. Pluralism leads to conditions that motivate differentiation and continued heterogeneity. In such situations, members of different ethnic groups lack appreciation for value and beliefs of other cultures. Immigrants from terror-stricken countries (Syria, Iraq, and Iran) may be viewed as enemies in a new country.


Pluralism encourages the establishment of institutions that promote group diversity and maintenance of group boundaries. What happens when a person from a different ethnic group needs help from an organization they do not belong? In such a situation, prejudices, discrimination, and bias as part of the society become evident. Immigrants cannot adapt when they are distinguished as a group within a larger society.

Transnationalism for immigrants is based on the assumption that individuals belong to two or more societies. The immigrant’s action seen through aspects such as prayer, work and play shows their pluralistic nature. Transnationalism for immigrants is not ideal because several reasons make a person be an immigrant. Social, political, and economic reasons make individuals move away from their nation in search for a supportive atmosphere where they can live in harmony. In such cases, allegiance to another nation affects the process of adapting in a foreign country. Immigrants with allegiance to terrorist nations are not likely to be accepted in a foreign country.


Assimilation is the only ideal strategy that assists immigrants to adapt in a foreign country. Assimilation ensures that ethnic minority groups attain average and above average social standing in the society in relation to education, occupation, and income. Socio-economic empowerment of immigrants, as well as intermarriages that respect and understand ethnic differences, is ideal so that racial prejudice and discrimination reduces. In the case of pluralism, establishing institutions that recognize differences only leads to increased segregation since members from minority groups have no chance in terms of representation in a system designed for the majority.

 Sample #4: Music



Romantic Music Composers


Towards the end of the eighteenth century, Romanticism was mostly used to portray novel thoughts in literature and painting; however, musicians adopted the word to define their musical style and composition. The primary objective of the Romantic composers was to spark emotion to reveal their innermost feelings and thoughts, hence instilling preconceived moods to listeners. However, this is not to mean that romantic music was all about passion and love, it was also composed to depict death or hate, and negative and positive feelings.


Nationalism, emotionalism, subjectivity and pragmatic composition defined romantic music. Distinguished composers of the romantic period included Gioacchino Rossini, Gaetano Donizetti, Robert Schumann and Felix Mendelssohn among others. Robert Schumann stands out as a unique composer during this time. He was the first composer to endear into the souls and minds of young children, although others had tried and failed.


Robert Schumann

Schumann was a Romantic music composer of German origin. Schumann began the musical career at a tender age of seven where he felt love for music. This love made him compose his songs. Under the influence of his father, a novelist, publisher and a bookseller, Schumann’s interest in literature increased. He, therefore, juggled between music and literature (Burkholder and Claude 70). Undoubtedly, this was a demonstration of his mastery in embracing literary in his future music career.


Schumann innovatively crafted his composition with originality using canons of Viennese classism and emulating exceptional legends of classical romanticism.Composing only on piano music, he began composing on other genres in preceding years. His compositions imitated and modeled the works of Beethoven. These approaches enabled him to craft multifarious piano sounds. In some occasions, he creatively expanded sonata form by rearranging character pieces in cycles. In his songs, the piano is characteristically and independently stands out depicting his poetic inspirations.


His composition widely encompassed narrative techniques which previously belonged exclusively in literature. These aspects of composition made him unique from the rest of the composers who embraced the traditional methods of music composition.According to Burkholder and Claude (110), Schumann incorporated scenes from plays, novels, and poems in his composition. In some cases, scenes depicting musical crossword puzzles with major musical scenes referring to places and people reflected in his composition.

In his "Carnaval”, a collection of piano pieces, Schumann’s uses character pieces to tell a story or embody a personality or mood of a person. In fact, Bonds (113) explains that this form of creativity was a characteristic of the romantic period and differentiated Schumann’s compositions with classical music. Moreover, Schumann intellectually used musical codes and spelling crafted on chords in his compositions. The notes present on the music were symbolic. For example, symbols such as A-Eb-C-B spelled roughly Aschi symbolized the home of Ernestine, his fiancée (Bonds 142)

Schumann’s compositions were unique and exciting. This aspect differentiated his work from other composers during the Romantic period. The intellectual use of symbolism as well as combining the works of other composers prompts me to assert that Schumann was innovative (Hanning 162).


Schumann experimented with novel genres either by using descriptive titles, developing distinctive narratives or by embracing conventional genre titles while dismantling musical expectations of those titles (Bonds 124). Schumann’s piano music for young children defined his romanticism music era. He skillfully used generic hybrids like the piano sonatas to fix generic relations that promoted change and communicating unknown through his compositions (Bonds 164).


Themes and harmony defined Schumann’s composition. Thematic and balance elements were the essential features of Schumann’s songs. Schumann used this style to embrace a sense of unreciprocated love, longing, and suffering. This aspect is demonstrated in the song Dichterliebe (Daverio 123). Also, tonal instability is also evident in Schumann’s songs. There is a remarkable swing from anguish to acquiescence and from flat keys to sharp keys in some of his songs; an obvious example is the Dichterliebe.Schumann’s addresses dissension with amplified liberty. Schumann creatively used rhythm to endear to his audience. He has extensively used polyrhythm between melody, accompaniment and text fixing coexistence of opposing ideas.Also, Daverio (141) mention that Schumann’s has masterly embraced recurrent themes in his songs to connect musical thoughts. An obvious example is the Dichterliebe where he uses narration. The theme he uses embodies symbolic significance besides inspiring narrative connection in his works. Transformation and repetitions of themes present in the songs link the ideas together, which is a major constituent of a song sequence.


Schumann’s uses a piano and voice to improve his composition. He has carefully used voice to borrow themes from the piano. The piano and voice complement each other and help in expressing the text as well as the song’s atmosphere. Piano and vocal that Schumann’s uses echoes a link between the piano music and the vocal, and thus Daverio (167) indicates that songs are an annex of Schumann’s music and thus express his world of emotions and feelings.

Schumann’s songs are embedded in poetry. In his words, Schumann’s demonstrated that a poem needs to be crushed, and its juice expressed; the poem must dress in the music like a circlet” (Daverio 172). This assertion by Schumann reflects his intimate attachment with text in most of his songs. Conversely, the songs reflect Schumann’s personal life trajectory from birth, growth to maturity and eventually decline. According to 26, Schumann’s songs transcended three significant periods in history, thus reflecting on his life and musical development.


In conclusion, the romantic music composers redefined the music industry. The songs reflected composer’s emotions and feelings and at the same time instilling in the listeners some form of pre-conceived moods. Music at this period was characterized by subjectivity, programmatic composition, emotionalism as well as nationalism. Robert Schumann was the significant contributor to romantic music. Beginning as a solo pianist, Schumann rose to become one of the greatest songwriter and composers of all time. He was innovative and was among the pioneers of romantic era composers to embrace literary devices such as poem in music composition. His music was characterized by symbolism, poetry, themes and harmony and vocal and voice among other stylistic devices. Schumann’s immense contribution to the music industry still lives to date where his works are being studied by scholars, romantic music enthusiasts and institutions of higher learning among others.


Works Cited

Bonds, Mark Evans.A History of Music in Western Culture.4th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice-Hall, 2013. Print

Daverio, John. Robert Schumann: Herald of a New Poetic Age. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1997. Print

Hanning, Barbara Russana. Concise History of Western Music, 5th ed. New

York: W.W. Norton, 2014. Print

Burkholder, J. Peter and Claude V. Palisca. Norton Anthology of Western Music, 6th ed. New York: W.W. Norton, 2010. Print

Sample #5:  American History

 Articles of the Confederation and the new Constitution of 1787.


There were many differences between the Articles of the Constitution than there were similarities. This is because the Free States at the very end of the Revolution desired to have a sort of control that would cascade all the way to a unified country. Thus, several issues arose as to how power would be shared between the local governments as well as the national government. Further, a question arose about who would make the laws and how these laws would be made. The other challenge was the question of the authority that would govern the said laws. Also, the question of how the government could be structured so as to protect the inalienable individual rights. It is these issues that led to the Articles of the Confederation. The Articles were largely a failure but not entirely. It is this failure that drove state delegates to set out to revise the articles. However, in the process of reviewing the Articles, they ended up constituting the Constitution. As such, more differences than similarities occurred between the Confederation Articles and the Constitution.


Comparison and Contrast

Unlike the Constitution, the Articles of Confederation created a loose confederation of independent states which provided very limited power to the central government. Thus, according to the Articles, individual states would only be entitled to one vote in the Congress, despite its population. Some members of the one-house Congress such as Pennsylvania agreed that the government would only have a unicameral legislature, without the executive or a separate judiciary (Irons, 1999). So, unlike with the Constitution, the Articles watered down the executive branch. Congress was the one charged with the duty of arbitrating disputes between different States and even conducting foreign affairs responsibilities. The judicial branch was missing in the Articles. The articles, however, denied Congress the power for tax collection, regulation of interstate commerce as well as law enforcement. Due to this, the central government would be left with no other option other than requesting donations from states to finance its operations, including raising armed forces (Lomask, 1980).


Afraid of creating a Monarchy, the states tried as much as possible to limit the national government's power. To achieve this, Congress created a national government that was weak and one that could not govern effectively. This led to both national as well as international challenges. One major weakness occasioned by the Articles of Confederation exhibited itself in the Congress incapability to regulate trade as well as levy taxes. This led to the states controlling all their cash flows. Though at times these States could be in debt due to tariff wars among themselves, the national government suffered most. This is because due to these wars, the states would refuse to remit money that the national government desperately needed. As such, the national government could fail to pay those who fought in the war as well as pay off the debts incurred during the Revolution.


Another challenge under the Articles was that Congress lacked the requisite capacity to govern effectively. This is because it lacked the nine-state majority required. Further, the Congress could not amend the laws because it needed a unanimous consent from all the states. All in all, the states ignored Congress in most instances as it had no powers to enforce cooperation and thus unable to carry out its duty. Due to the lack of income, the national government was unable to defend its borders against the British and even Spanish encroachment as it was unable to raise a reasonable army. There was total disorder: states controlled interstate business, coined their money as well as regulated its supply such that currency values differed from one state to the other.

Anti-federalists, who formed a majority, believed that the national government would be a threat to their rights and liberties. They were afraid that the constitution would override their rights. The anti-federalists constituted mainly the upcountry farmers, the poor, the illiterates, debtors among other rights advocates (Ketcham, 1986). On the other side were the Federalists. The Federalists were staunch supporters of the Constitution who desired a strong central government. The Federalists believed that the Articles of Confederation were weak and largely ineffective. They also felt a strong national government would not protect its people and their rights (Levy, 1999).


New constitution formation

The delegates who attended a convention called by George Washington in the late 1787 were from only eleven states out of the total thirteen states. They agreed on the formation of a government consisting of three branches. These were the legislature (Congress), executive (the President) and the Judiciary (Supreme Court). These branches were under checks and balances to ensure a balance of powers between them as well as preventing tyranny in the country. Also, they believed such an arrangement in which there is separation of powers would ensure that the country did not become a monarchy. However, to reach such an agreement was not easy coming. There were several compromises to be made (Lomask, 1980).

It should be noted that delegates came from different backgrounds and, therefore, held disparate views. They, for instance, could not agree on the number of representatives each state should be allowed to have. Larger states preferred the Virginia plan which allowed that each state produces different numbers of representatives based on that state’s population. The smaller states favored the New Jersey Plan which required that the number of representatives should be the same for each state (Lomask, 1980).


Roger Sherman, a delegate from Connecticut, is the one who solved this stalemate by proposing that there should be a two-house legislature which consists of a Senate and a House of Representatives. The Senate was to have an equal number or representatives from each state while The House of Representatives would produce one representative for every 30000 people in a particular state. This solution came to be known as the Great Compromise as both big and small states' interests were well covered. Also, a balance was struck between slave-owning states versus those that did not own them (Lomask, 1980).


Under the new Constitution, the Congress had the power and right to levy taxes besides regulating commerce. A strong executive was created to give the country the much deserved strong leadership. This is despite Alexander Hamilton's suggestion for a monarchy headed by an American King. Thus, the president would only be elected by an electoral college and after that supposed to appoint an own cabinet. The Judiciary Act of 1789 was also passed, and it created the Supreme Court and several district courts (Irons, 1999).

However, it should be noted that civil liberties were equally protected. This is because the delegates wanted to have in place a government of the people (Agel, 2000). Thus, suggestions numbering over two hundred got submitted to Congress to protect the citizen rights.


In conclusion, it can be seen that The Articles of Confederation form an important part in the American roots. Several ideas from Articles played a major role in the US constitution as it is today. This is because the Bill of Rights was derived from the Articles. Also, the articles provided a platform upon which the government structured the better upon realizing the disadvantage of a weak central government.




Agel, J. B. (2000). We, The People - Great Documents of the American Nation. New

York, NY: Barnes & Noble Books.

Irons, P. (1999). A People's History of the Supreme Court. New York, NY: Penguin


Ketcham, R. (1986). The Anti-Federalist Papers and the Constitutional Convention

Debates (2nded.) New York, NY: Penguin Books.

Levy, L. (1999). Origins of the Bill of Rights.New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

Lomask, M. (1980). The Spirit of 1787 - The Making of Our Constitution. New York, NY:

Fawcett Juniper.


Sample #6: Business Management


Supply Chain Management


Supply chain management is a critical component to any form of business establishment. It assists an organization to achieve its goals and objectives. The majority of firms embrace supply chain management practices at all levels of the organization. These levels include the strategic, operational and tactical.Organizations can adopt supply chain management at the strategic level to craft wide-organizational decisions.


At the tactical level, the business can include critical aspects of the supply chain to help management achieve the desired organizational goals. Also, at the operational level, the organization can tailor the supply chain management to meet the business needs of the organization. We can, therefore, infer a strong connection exists between supply chain management and business processes in an organization.


Organizations have diverse goals and objectives when it comes to using supply chain management. However, majority uses supply chain management to develop product life cycles.Most organizations use strategic decisions when considering products to manufacture and supply to the market (Long, 2003). Thus, when the product gets old, an organization innovates and comes up with new products. The supply chain management comes in, playing a significant role in pushing the new products closer to the consumers.


Timely distribution of goods to consumers is relevant to any given business. It contributes to efficiency, as well as reliability in meeting the customer’s needs on time. The supply chain management enables the organization to distribute their products closer to the targeted consumers thereby shortening time delivery to the market.


Businesses seek to improve their operations and attain a competitive advantage over other similar firms. Supply chain management offers unmerited benefits for businesses to achieve this goal. An organization can eliminate barriers and allow smooth flow of goods. The business leverages on these practices to strengthen the business through lowering prices, innovating new products and redesigning existing ones (Brigham and Ehrhardt, 2014). These aspects give a business a competitive edge over its competitors


Global business environment creates opportunities, as well as challenges in supply chain management. One major challenge posed by supply chain management is environmental issues.Golinska and Romano (2012) points out that globalization of trade, Just-in-Time deliveries, and outsourcing business operations to others countries has had a negative impact on the environment. These activities have increased the frequency of both air and road transport to deliver goods between countries and continents. As a result, more carbon dioxide is being emitted in the environment.


Detrimental government policies are also a concern with supply chain management in the global environment. Though many countries have sound and concrete measures to guide and speed up dispensation of goods, some have harmful policies that hinder supply chain practices. Some countries have detrimental policies that limit global multinational organizations to locate and manage inventory locally. Policies created to add extra challenges and make it hard for firms to operate in value chains.


The role of outsourcing has also been a concern for managing the supply chain in a global environment. Golinska and Romano (2012) indicate that supply chain operators encounter disintermediation. Disintermediation is where a lead organization may decide to eliminate a middle man and carry on with the business. Long (2003) argues that this practice is not efficient for any business. Business should build sufficient knowledge and establish relationships with other stakeholders to strengthen their businesses.



Brigham, E.F., and Ehrhardt, M.C. (2014). Financial management: Theory & Practice. 14th ed. Mason, Ohio: Cengage Learning,

Golinska, P., and Romano, C. (2012). Environmental Issues in Supply Chain Management–Main Challenges. Retrievedfrom

Long D. C. (2003). International logistics: global supply chain management. UK: Blackwell.